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Risk of sexual violence, as well as the stress associated with that risk, may also be increased when women and girls must travel long distances away from home to collect water [ 15 ]. Third, water collection labor can negatively influence children's schooling in SSA countries. A participatory observational study in South Africa reported that children spend an average of The study also reported that due to water collection activities, children often left school early and experienced fatigue and difficulties in concentrating on their studies [ 16 ].

Another study found that older children may be pulled out of school to watch younger children while mothers go to collect water or to collect the water themselves [ 17 ]. When asked about their perceptions of domestic chores, including fetching water for their household, nearly all young girls in Ethiopia felt that it limited their ability to partake and succeed in school [ 18 ]. Porter et al.

Fourth, women and children generally have less physical capacity to carry heavy loads in contrast to adult men [ 12 ]. A recent study suggested that children experience extreme pain from water collection activities, and the level of pain and fatigue may be determined by the distance they travel [ 10 ]. Some children, however, expressed positive feelings about water collection chores because they can help their family meet basic needs, get exercise, and earn money by delivering water to households [ 10 ].

Given the large number of people affected by water collection labor in sub-Saharan Africa, the present study aims to more fully describe water collection practices among all sub-Saharan African countries with available data.

The objectives of this study are to: 1 estimate the absolute number of people affected by long water collection times i. The MICS and DHS typically contain a sample size ranging from 5, to 30, households, varying in accordance with country size, and are conducted every three to five years.

If two or more surveys were available for one country, the most recent was used to obtain the most current estimate.

This last set of questions was used to calculate the proportion of households where children, male or female, are primarily responsible for water collection. It should be noted that for estimating the time spent collecting water, the DHS and MICS questions do not determine whether households are spending this time waiting for water e.

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Furthermore, the questions do not determine how many trips a household may make in one day. A The total population in Burkina Faso B The average number of people in urban households in Burkina Faso 5. The DHS and MICS are stratified, clustered, and two-stage surveys and are designed to be representative of the country as a whole, and in combination with population estimates World Bank data and urban and rural residence, available as part of DHS and MICS, were used to estimate urban and rural water collection practices.

In most cases, there is over or under sampling in order to expand or reduce the number of cases for certain areas or sub-populations. The household weights provided in the datasets were applied in this analysis by using the Stata svyset and svy commands to get representative results of the entire population. Because water collection practices vary for urban and rural settings, this report provides tables disaggregated for urban and rural areas.

These countries varied significantly in terms of population size 0. World Bank. Population, total. GDP per capita. There was also considerable heterogeneity of water-related characteristics among the rural and urban areas of the countries Table 2. Typically, countries with low levels of household-level access to water in urban areas also had low coverage levels in rural areas, but this was not the case in Ethiopia, Lesotho, and Swaziland. The percentage of households without water on their premises and that reported spending more than 30 minutes collecting water varied significantly Table 2.

Across the 24 countries, adult females were predominantly responsible for water collection Table 2. In 10 countries, adult women were reported to be the primary collector of water in more than three-quarters of households across the country. For each country, the prevalence of adult females as the primary collectors of water was generally similar across rural and urban areas, as well as for collection times greater or less than 30 minutes.

There were, however, six countries where the prevalence of women as the primary water collectors among all households without water on their premises differed by over twenty percentage points between urban and rural areas. When reported water collection times were greater than 30 minutes, the proportion of adult females as the primary collectors was lower in both urban and rural settings of six countries and higher in six countries. There were four countries Fig 1 where more than one million households reported an adult female is the primary water collector when water collection times were above 30 minutes: Nigeria 2.

Only 10 of the 24 countries had less than , households that reported an adult female is the primary water collector when water collection times were above 30 minutes Fig 1. There was substantial variability in the gender ratio i. All countries had gender ratios above one, indicating that adult women, more than men, shouldered the responsibility for water collection. While 17 of the 24 had gender ratios below 10, seven countries had gender ratios over 10, including: Burkina Faso In urban areas, adult gender ratios were typically smaller than in rural areas.

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The gender ratio was lower by more than 10 in urban areas versus rural areas for Burkina Faso, Gambia, Guinea, and Malawi. There was little change in this range when water collection took greater than 30 minutes Table 1. Summary statistics for countries. There were two countries Fig 2 where more than one million households reported a child as the primary water collector when water collection times were above 30 minutes: Nigeria 1. Six of the 24 countries had more than , households that reported a child as the primary water collector when water collection times were above 30 minutes Fig 2.

In households where children were reported to be the primary collector of water and where collection times were greater than 30 minutes, female children, versus male children, dominated water collection. There was variability in the gender ratio i. Twenty-two countries had gender ratios greater than one indicating that girls, more than boys, shouldered the responsibility for water collection.

Most countries had gender ratios below 10; Guinea and Malawi, however, had gender ratios of Two countries had gender ratios of one or below among households where collection times were greater than 30 minutes: Liberia and Niger. There were few instances when the results, by place of residence or by collection times greater than 30 minutes, had children gender ratios below one.

In nine countries, gender ratios increased in rural areas, over urban areas, by more than one when collection times were greater than 30 minutes and in three countries the opposite occurred Table 3. However, Schneider Electric is, for example, already working closely with the World Economic Forum WEF to identify the application that will revolutionise the adoption of 5G. Moreover, it is also unclear as to who will build out such a large number of local edge data centres — this could be hundreds of thousands, or even millions of pieces, worldwide, hence the high anticipated cost and need for a coordinated and standardised approach.

This will also require an efficient deployment strategy and a vendor with a global supply chain that can also provide all of the pre-integrated infrastructure in a scalable and repeatable way. Some of the other barriers I see are the standards.

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Some, like 3GPP R16 for example, are still in the works for higher spectrums, and expensive 5G Spectrum auctions can leave little or no money for the data centre and network buildout, which is completely counter-intuitive. Human rights groups challenging microwave and millimetre wave safety may also present a challenge. How will AI technologies such as ML, deep learning, deep dreaming, and so on, be used within the 5G spectrum? Some of the best use cases for 5G are in the industrial sector because of the close proximity of IT equipment and easy line of site communication in the Radio Access Network RAN.

In factory automation, for example, 5G allows for faster data throughput rates and more network capacities, as well as promising highly secure availability. Moreover, ultra-low latency ensures faster response times between equipment in the factory system. Due to the high volume of infrastructure required to support 5G, it will be next to impossible to have service personnel at every site. AI and the cloud therefore, play crucial roles in analysing the data, identifying any potential outages before they happen and ensuring that service personnel can rectify any issues quickly and cost-effectively.

How is cybersecurity maintained as the hosting environment becomes more complex? In turn, this will reduce the risk of all devices becoming compromised as part of a coordinated attack. This type of architecture makes it imperative to implement protective measures that are typically used at the core at the edge — firewalls, encryption, etc. Service providers may also consider applying pseudonymization use of artificial identifiers, or pseudonyms at the point of data collection as another protective measure.


Physical security is a major concern, especially when there will be tens of thousands of small micro data centres being deployed across highly populated cities around the world. Service providers have to ensure they are protecting their equipment from any potential hazards or downtime from human error. The physical location is also a big factor, as there are challenges associated with deploying such facilities out of reach of the general public, which may also involve complicated installation and repair.

In addition to solid or ruggedized casing and locks, we recommend that the systems do not have any accessible displays or buttons and are accompanied by a highly visual video security system, which will act as a great deterrent. But visit Giza and you will find a horizon much different from what you would expect. Egypt is home to 98 million people, a number expected to boom to million by and a staggering m by Located 45km east of Cairo, the city is already under construction in what was largely an undeveloped area halfway to the seaport city of Suez.

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The masterplan covers square Km with a projected population of 6. Analyst and research firm TowerXchange estimates the current tower count in Egypt to be over 22, The entrance of Telecom Egypt into the mobile market means new tower build volumes are relatively high in Egypt: collectively, Orange, Vodafone and Etisalat are understood to be adding new towers per year, whilst Telecom Egypt has initiated the next phase of their network rollout, requiring the addition of 1, new sites ground-based towers, rooftops and IBS.

While 4G coverage is relatively extensive in Cairo, a substantial rollout is required elsewhere.

Furthermore, with over million subscribers and just over 22, towers, Egypt has over 4, subscribers per tower, the highest in the MENA region.