The support and encouragement of my good friend Dr Payam Mehrshahi also was invaluable over the past four years and deserves mention. Nottingham Trent University has been a second home to me for many years and there are many people who deserve my appreciation. This research project would not have been possible without the help and time of many individuals whom I encountered on research trips in the UK, Jordan, the United States and Switzerland.
A final mention of thanks should be offered to my editors at I. Tauris, Joanna Godfrey and Maria Marsh who both offered me a great deal of support and to Allison McKechnie who did a fabulous job of copyediting this manuscript. There are undoubtedly many others who deserve acknowledgement here that through error have not been mentioned above. My sincerest thanks go to all.
In so doing it asks a number of questions regarding the national interests which have led to the facilitation of bilateral trade, the nature of contemporary trade and market integration and the impacts of these on inter-state cooperation.
Throughout this study the role of Jordanian and US engagement in international institutions is considered and conclusions formed regarding the utility of this engagement in trade relations and inter-state cooperation. It is also found that these interests have been pursued through economic reform at the domestic level and trade liberalisation through international institutions at the international level. It is also concluded that the United States is pursuing a number of key policy goals in the Middle East and North Africa — it is important to note that this book assumes that states from Morocco to Egypt can be classed as being in the Middle East, as is common in much literature, but can also be defined as being within North Africa, which is geographically-speaking a more suitable term — MENA.
It is demonstrated that the United States is pursuing these goals by encouraging states in the region to engage in international institutions and liberalise trade with one another and with the United States to increase economic integration and inter-state cooperation.
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In order to assess the nature of contemporary trade between Jordan and the United States and what the impacts of inter-state cooperation have been, trade in three economic sectors has been studied. It is demonstrated that trade in textiles and clothing, a low value-added manufacturing sector, has increased significantly since the process of trade liberalisation began in However, this form of trade consists almost exclusively of exports from Jordan to the United States.
Trade in pharmaceutical products is also studied.
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It is found here that, while bilateral trade in these goods does exist, this form of economic activity is quite limited and has not greatly increased in the post-liberalisation era. Thus, economic integration has been limited in these high valueadded goods.
The study is taken further when trade in financial services is considered. The conclusion here is that this form of trade is extremely limited and has not been impacted upon in any significant way by inter-state cooperation and engageement with international institutions. The overall conclusions are that Jordan and the United States as state actors have engaged with international institutions and liberalised bilateral trade in the hope of pursuing national policy goals.
However, the impact of international institutions and trade liberalisation on economic growth, economic integration, interdependence and inter-state cooperation has been limited. However, wide ranging integration between the two markets has not occurred because non-state actors are largely not engaging in trade and economic activity between the markets.
Furthermore, inter-state cooperation has been restricted to specific economic issue-areas.
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It is found that the utility of international institutions and trade liberalisation in this case is restricted by the agency of non-state actors and their roles in trade and market integration. The originality of this study lies in both what is studied and how it is studied. In short, this study attempts to address a gap in the literature on Jordan and US—Jordan trade relations.
Furthermore, this study acknowledges the Trans Atlantic divide in the study of International Political Economy and the related contemporary debates but refrains from advocating one or the other camp. Instead, a reflective approach is adopted in the use of a critical form of liberal institutionalist theory which remains free from these constraints and develops a non-Western-centric approach.
What follows is an assessment and analysis of the political economy of trade relations between these two states within the disciplinary framework of International Political Economy IPE. The purpose of this study is to understand and offer explanations of contemporary change in the relationship between the United States and Jordan. This is done by examining the United States and Jordan as state actors and as markets comprising non-state actors.
Furthermore, this is done by studying state relations and the subsequent impact upon the framework within which the two markets interact, as well as studying the actual interaction of the markets through the activity of non-state actors. This study also addresses the significance of these elements of change and develops a set of predictions and prescriptions for both state and non-state actors pertaining to the future of US—Jordan trade and wider political and economic relations.
In this endeavour four core research questions are addressed. The first question considers whether or not trade liberalisation through the engagement with international institutions in the forms of international organisations IOs and trade regimes has led to greater levels of trade between Jordan and the United States. The second core question considers whether greater levels of trade have led to greater levels of bilateral market integration. The third question is whether increased trade and market integration have resulted in greater state-level cooperation between Jordan and the United States.
The final research question considered in this study asks what the interests of the two state actors have been with regard to their bilateral relations, and if these are being met as a result of contemporary trade between them.
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This book is presented in three main sections, the first of which is Chapter 1, which establishes the disciplinary framework within which the analysis takes place, and the theoretical approach used. The second section then uses the approaches outlined in Chapter 1 to examine relations at the state level, assessing relations and policies determining how the United States and Jordan as state actors have shaped the framework within which trade takes place. This section thus contains two chapters, one studying Jordanian domestic, foreign and trade policy and one studying US foreign and trade policy the inclusion of domestic policy in the former chapter is explained below.
The third section of this book uses the theoretical approach established in Chapter 1 to study the actual trade relations between the US and Jordanian markets. This section consists of three chapters each addressing one economic sector outlined below. It must be noted here that the three chapters in this section each draw upon various components of the conception of critical liberal institutionalism.
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However, the analyses in these chapters in some ways constitute individual elements of the overall theoretical analysis. As such they do not necessarily draw upon all of the elements of the theory used here. The conclusions to each of these chapters will, however, draw the analyses together into an overall theoretical analysis. The second and third sections of this book are based, to a certain extent, on primary data collected on field research trips to Jordan, the United States and Switzerland. A conclusion follows this third main section of this book. The aim of this chapter is to introduce and engage with the debate within IPE regarding the nature of the discipline in the early twenty-first century1 and how relations between the United States and the MENA region including US—Jordan relations have been included,2 and to review relevant literature.
It traces the emergence of the debate between the two main schools within IPE discussed below from the s and highlights the shortcomings of a discipline which has to some extent failed to keep pace with a changing international political economy and changing US—Jordan and US—MENA relations. The argument in this chapter is that IPE has been dominated by an orthodox or hegemonic version of the discipline which is mostly, although not exclusively, rooted in the US academy.
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The nature of IPE is introduced in order to give an overview of the discipline as a whole, but this study intentionally remains outside of the Trans-Atlantic debate. This is done in order to remain free from the constraints of this debate and to focus on the topic of study. The discussion in this chapter then indicates how the elements of IPE which are problematic are addressed in this book. The development of a critical version of liberal institutionalism is also presented, outlining the specific theory and key concepts used in this study.
Chapter 2 examines Jordanian domestic, foreign and trade policy since the s. The core focus of this chapter is a discussion of how changes in the domestic and international economic and political spheres have encouraged dual processes of reform. The change in Jordanian foreign economic policy and economic reform at home, it is argued here, is a result of changes in demands and constraints — largely economic in nature — on national interests. Chapter 3 presents a discussion of change in US foreign and trade policy since the early s and how this is related to political and strategic policies and interests.
This chapter argues that US foreign and economic policies are in fact largely one and the same. Since the s there has been a change in foreign and economic policy towards the region, exemplified by the drive towards bilateral economic integration through trade liberalisation. It must be emphasised at this point that this study, while seeking to discuss the political economy of trade between the United States and Jordan by looking at a range of state and non-state actors, explores these types of actors in differing levels of detail.
As is discussed further in Chapter 1, a plurality of actors is assumed in the theoretical framework which is used in this study. Furthermore, the assumption is made that no single form of actor has universal primacy over all others. Thus, within this project it is claimed that in order to understand the complex relationship between Jordan and the United States as both state actors and markets of non-state actors we must discuss and analyse a range of actor types.
These non-state actors will include corporations, trade associations and inter-governmental organisations IGOs. However, the roles of the various state and non-state actors in trade between Jordan and the United States differ in character and often in significance. As this study progresses state actors are seen to have an important role in defining the framework in which bilateral trade takes place.
Non-state actors as a whole are discussed in detail. However, no individual non-state actor receives as much attention as the individual state actors discussed. The difference in the level of detail in the discussion of state and non-state actors should not be seen as either an assumption of the primacy of the state as actor or a conclusion of state actor primacy.
This point is taken further in the conclusions. This chapter aims to study how US— Jordan textiles and clothing trade relations have changed as a result of state facilitation of trade, discuss which actors are involved in this trade and explain the impact of international institutions.